Friday, July 10, 2020

How to Write Essays Well

How to Write Essays WellIt is essential to remember that the best way to produce a well-written essay is to be guided by a clear and effective writing system. Many students find it challenging to write essays due to the scarcity of adequate resources and adequate time, especially if they are studying for or are preparing for an exam. Some people do not like to work hard, and just want to breeze through exams without doing any academic work at all.Writing exercises may help you. Most online writing courses provide ample writing practice to help you work on the structure and logic of your essay. These online courses usually have plenty of practice essays that you can use as references and practice the techniques of writing an essay. However, these writing exercises cannot be used as effective practice as they do not follow a clear writing style and format.You will find that this writing method does not always work well with sample essays. The sample essays and the writing system that y ou study from are usually guidelines that you should adopt when writing an essay, but they are not helpful in teaching you how to compose your own essays.As much as possible, it is always preferable to stick to your own writing style as much as possible. Moreover, try to practice your essay from a number of different sources and other sample essays to ensure that your writing style is consistent with the style of the original essay. A good method of writing a well-written essay is to refer to examples from classic authors, and to use the same words, word structure, syntax, and vocabulary. Make sure that you keep the style of the essay consistent with the style of the source material.There are also some simple ways to make your essay better. When writing a strong essay, avoid using too many technical terms in your essay and be careful to use appropriate, plain, and concise terms. Instead of relying on scientific terms, and instead of using unnecessarily complicated and long words, be more precise and less cumbersome in your essay.Remember that in making your own essay, make it not only well-written but also coherent and efficient. Your essay will be a good source of reference to others who may be looking for a professional reference guide to help them with their own academic work. This would give them some idea of what kind of things you had tried to achieve when making a similar essay.You can always rely on the best resources for you to prepare a well-written and effective essay. Writing is an art and you should know how to create a well-written essay by following these writing tips.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Advertisement Towards Young Girls - 1434 Words

Joanna Salazar English 107 Ms. Cole 7 November 2012 Final Draft Advertisements towards young Girls Advertising means to call the publics attention to ones product, service, need, etc. But what we see isnt what we get or how we will feel. The purpose to advertise is to sell, the more you advertise the more you will sell. Many companies have ways into luring us into buying a product that is unnecessary. Jib Fowles describes the fifteen appeals in which advertisements use, which are Need for sex, Need for affiliation, Need for guidance, Need to aggress, Need to achieve, Need to dominate, Need for prominence, Need for attention, Need for autonomy, Need to escape, Need to feel safe, Need for aesthetic sensation, Need to satisfy†¦show more content†¦Is it truly correct for young girls to be applying makeup at such a young age? Dr. McCarthy showed some of Thylane`s pictures to her ten year old and according to her daughter Natasha she said, â€Å"That’s horrible mommy,† because Thylane was dressed like a grown-up. After wards her mom showed her some pictures in the internet and asked her what she liked she pointed to short skirts, tight fitting shirts, spaghetti-strap tops, and low-riding slim jeans. Children are supposed to be children? Cry, think of their favorite cartoon, cereal, toy, etc. and not think of how they should look and what they should wear at such a young age. Both of these advertisements show the Need for attention, Need for aesthetic sensation, and Physiological Needs. The need for attention-They are showing two young girls using their makeup brand which in this case is lip gloss. The companies are trying to reach our younger generation and they truly are accomplishing their goals without us even noticing. Have you ever noticed the famous Barbie or the Bratz doll? If you go and purchase one, what do you see? I see a Bratz doll wearing short skirts and fishnet stockings with bright red lip gloss and a small body. Then I see a Barbie doll, which is slender, curvaceous, and lacking of any fla ws (Breezy). Unfortunately the companies are sneaking ideas into young girls minds without us or the parents even knowing it, making them think that looking like aShow MoreRelatedAdvertisement from Debuting Directors at the Young Directors Award695 Words   |  3 PagesThe Young Director’s Award is an award that supports and promotes debuting international talent in film production. These advertisements are from the debuting directors, who are nominated for the award. These advertisements primarily focus on the talent and creativity of young directors by portraying young girls that would make up stories and create drama This â€Å"Born To Create Drama† advertisement for Young Director starts off with a girl on the swing. Her father is swinging her, and heRead MoreYoung Girls Encounter Puberty1147 Words   |  5 PagesYoung Girls Encounter Puberty Today, young girls are growing up in a broken, judgmental world. Somewhere around ten years old is when most girls start puberty, and only a few more years after that is when she will start her menstrual cycle. Girl’s bodies change rapidly at these times causing their hormones to fluctuate. This results in, mood changes, self-confidence issues, and even a negative body image. At only fifteen years old, some girls are struggling with their self-esteem. UnfortunatelyRead MoreThe Candie s Foundation Advertisement1727 Words   |  7 PagesCandie’s Foundation advertisement found in the Seventeen magazine. The advertisement is directed to the teenage audience, and its message is to avoid teenage pregnancy. The Candie’s Foundations is a non-profit organization that prevents teenage pregnancy by providing information and making campaigns. The advertisement will be examined by the use of logos, pathos, and ethos. These three different appeals will help to describe and u nderstand each part placed in the advertisement. This document willRead MoreThe Effect Of Media On Young Girls And Their Self Esteem1590 Words   |  7 PagesThe influence media has on young girls and their self-esteem The media and advertisements are meant to influence our everyday lives in society. Young girls are being exposed today more than ever to the over sexualized images of women within the media, advertisements and in pop culture. Young girls are seeing these types of images everyday either in magazines, television shows, movies or fashion. The research questions I propose to explore: â€Å"Are the images that young girls are exposed to within theRead MoreThe Representation Of The Female Body954 Words   |  4 Pagespopular advertisement is typically shown to be vulgar, it is known as their identity to look at a certain image for the male population to draw their attention. In the early 1900s, women did not have to be half naked to get attention from the media. They could have got attention by being fully clothed. In the 2000s time has changed and the advertisements have changed. The media portrays the women to be this way, is this really their identity? Socially this is unacceptable for women and young teensRead MoreViolence in Advertising: Are They Selling Rape and Violence Against Women?1622 Words   |  7 PagesAdvertising is one of the most popular ways to promote a product. Through advertisement the creators of these products can make millions of dollars, depending on how successful their advertisements are. But are the advertisement selling a product that will help them or are they selling violence and sex? Many ads can influence people in different ways. One of these ways is to show women as objects of rape and sexual abuse. In, â€Å"Two Ways a Woman Can Get Hurt† Kilbourne talks about how many ads useRead MoreBrainwashing Youth : How Advertising Influences Children On Gender Images1496 Words   |  6 PagesGender Images For advertising companies, the topic of advertising to children is one that is very controversial and could lead to a lot of debate on whether it is even ethical to do so. None the less advertisements continue to be aired and targeted towards a particularly vulnerable group: children. At a young age it is a critical time for children. They are not only developing their mental and physical capabilities, but they are also developing their outlook on themselves and their own gender self-identityRead MoreThe Negative Effects Of Advertisements On Children1278 Words   |  6 PagesEffects of Advertisements Advertisers seek viewers who will buy products based on the consumers’ need and desire to become perfect. Advertisers know how to push the right button to make people feel insecure and imperfect. They use this insecurity to make a profit. But what happens when a person is pushed too hard? Both genders and all nationalities are affected by advertisements. The negative effects of advertisements include low self-esteem, eating disorders, and depression. Advertisements have beenRead MoreEssay on Sexualization in The Media1082 Words   |  5 Pagesand leaves the public no answer but to look to the advertisements they have produced. Consider the pistachio industry using a woman with a whip to grasp the viewers’ attention. In reality, is a provocative image what it takes to sell us a simple bag of pistachios? With advertising decisions like these come negative consequences such as the common practice of objectifying and degrading women, along with influences on the cognitive growth of young girls. The use of overly suggestive women in advertisingRead MoreCommercial Advertising : A Primary Attribute Of American Culture Essay956 Words   |  4 Pagestwo political commercial advertisements. It’s very common for commercial advertisements during presidential elections to examine social issues. In this year s election, Hillary Clinton’s strategy was to quote Donald Trump to portray him as a sexist candidate. Hillary Clinton is a worldwide inspirational women who has helped galvanize a global movement for women s right and opportunities. Moreover, I chose to analyze Hillary Clinton’s â€Å"Mirror† commercial advertisement because it emits a tremendous

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Cell Phones Pro Vs. Con - 1025 Words

Cell Phones: Pro vs. Con Cell phones have come a long way since April 3, 1973 when the first phone was invented. The first call in history was made that day by Motorola employee Martin Cooper, as he stood next to a 900 MHz base station in New York City and phoned to the headquarters of Bell Labs in New Jersey (The Cellphone Turns 40: Remembering Martin Cooper’s Historic Call). Since that day, cell phones have evolved to become what is now a all-in-one master piece. A current cell phone removes the need for various gadgets and replaces it with the click of just one button. Cell phones were first created to be strong, durable and not for long distance calling. Now, ordinary cellphones have evolved to the point where they are called smart phones. Although this incredible invention has changed our lives, it remains in debate of whether it was for the good or bad. The usage of cell phones is becoming tremendously fashionable in today’s innovative world. With the iPhone selling over $10 million worth of product in the first 3 days of its release, it is no question that cell phone popularity in today’s society is extremely crucial because these technologically advanced devices can record and capture videos, pictures, and even connect to the Internet for easy web surfing (First Weekend iPhone Sales Top 10 Million). For instance, the easy access of internet usage can help an individual when seeking to obtain an answer to challenging questions. Also, cell phones can help a child orShow MoreRelatedPersonal and Mobile Computing Essay1454 Words   |  6 Pagesonline news cite by using his/her mobile device to read or find out different information. Furthermore, mobile computing will be discussed along with the different types of computing devices ; such as laptops , smart phones ,tablets , I pads , and E Book Readers. Likewise, the pros and cons will be deliberated as well, along with the history, and lastly why is technology currently playing a huge role in diverse people daily lifestyles? To sum it a mobile computer is efficiently any computing device thatRead MoreUnit 1 Lab 1 Physical Networking1074 Words   |  5 Pageson Fixed Line vs. Cellular Debate June 16, 2014 Debate the Pros and Cons to having a purely cellular network vs. having a purely fixed line network Pro s: Cost: Most wireline phone companies charge more than what you d pay for most alternatives, and some are taxed more as well. There are some locations where getting new wired phoneservice is prohibitively expensive or even impossible. Long Distance and extra features like Call Waiting are normally included with alternative phones. †¢ Portability:Read MoreTouch Screen Technology1494 Words   |  6 Pagescapacitive touch. As shown in Figure 1, a resistive touch screen is made up of several layers, the surface consists two electrically conductive layers separated by a narrow gap. When an object presses on the screen, it completes the circuit, telling the phone which part of the screen is being pressed. Figure 1 Resistive touch screen ELEC001 Project Report | Touch Screen Technology Group 30 Illustrated in Figure 2, capacitive touch screens consists a layer of insulator such as glass coated with a transparentRead MoreUnit 1. Activity 1. Data on Fixed Line vs. Cellular Debate Essays1234 Words   |  5 PagesPros Cons of Fixed vs. Cellular: Pros: Cost: Most wireline phone companies charge more than what youd pay for most alternatives, and some are taxed more as well. There are some locations where getting new wired phone service is prohibitively expensive or even impossible. Long Distance and extra features like Call Waiting are normally included with alternative phones. More Features: Cellular and broadband phones normally include Long Distance, Voice Mail, Caller ID, Call Forwarding andRead MoreThe Current Status of 3g and the Future of 4g Essay1237 Words   |  5 Pages3G is still in use world-wide and will probably remain so for a few more years. 4G is still relatively new and has somewhat limited coverage, but it is only going to expand and get better. Brief History of 3G 3G is the third generation of cell phone mobile communications standards and successor of the older 2G standards. 3G networks were a substantial improvement over 2G networks, offering previously unseen data transfer speeds. Although 3G has only been in the United States since 2002, itRead MoreData on Fixed Lines vs Cellular Essay examples1191 Words   |  5 PagesIn this paper I will go over the pros and cons of having a purely fixed line network vs. a purely cellular network. When making this decision there are several things to consider, the most important is what this network is going to be used for. I am going to first go over the fixed line network then follow up with the cellular network. At the end of this paper I will do a recommendation to a new company that wants to open up a Skype- style service as to whether they should use a fixed line or aRead MoreOur Distracted Culture : What Was It?1643 Words   |  7 Pagesinto depth on how our culture is addicted to devices, spe cifically cell phones, that correlates with social media and how it affects relationships and everyday life. He claims, The harsh truth is we Americans have become taking a toll on everything from nurturing our authentic relationships to simply paying attention to what matters during our brief lifetimes† (5H). In other words, these distractions, mainly cell phones, withdrawal us from life and lead us to fail to communicate withRead More100 Essay Topics1545 Words   |  7 Pagesprostitution 43. Write an editorial to your mayor complaining about problems in your town or city 44. What the individual can do to help protect the environment Consumerism 45. The effects of fast food on your health 46. Cell phones, television, computers†¦luxuries or necessities 47. Should phone surveys and telemarketing be prohibited 48. Are brand name clothes worth the price (Abercrombie, Ralph Lauren, Nike) 49. Advantages and disadvantages of credit cards Current events 50. The im portance of the ozoneRead MoreImpact of Social Media on Relationships Essay1050 Words   |  5 Pagesfamily’s favorite Christmas tradition. Of course, the sender of the friend request is not at fault, because society struggles with â€Å"what is private vs. what is public†. The research done suggests that by looking to the natural views of how the social penetration theory society has evolved that two things result; (1) we have different concepts of public vs. private information and (2) there is a much more expedient process for developing relationships than is suggested by the social penetration theoryRead MorePeer Pressure2910 Words   |  12 Pagesand trade with Cuba: should it be allowed? †¢ The 51st state in the US should be Washington D.C. †¢ Are there aliens? †¢ Bottled water: more harmful than good. †¢ Single sex education system is better than a co-ed system. †¢ Mobile phones in school - should we ban them? †¢ Reading - is it the new style trend? †¢ Does detention actually serve a purpose? †¢ Are vampires real? †¢ Junk food should be banned from public schools. †¢ Thanks to social networking, there is no

Nursing Care of Infants and Children-Free-Samples for Students

Question: Discuss about the Inter-Personal Relationship between the Baby and the Nurse. Answer: Introduction Babies are the best gifts in this world and being a mom is the best possible experience that a woman faces in her life time. The emotions surrounding the baby are amazing and are a thing that needs to be cherished. Description This case study focuses on a new mom sharing her experience on being a new mom. The case study focuses Elise and Violet, where violet had been diagnosed with hypothyroidism. Since Violet is just a week old. The care that she requires has to be extremely patient specific and the baby should be dealt with extreme care. Feelings There are certain codes of nursing that has to be maintained by the nurses to provide an appropriate care to the patient. Violet was just a week old and hence should be handled with extreme care (Hockenberry Wilson, 2014). As a nurse I believe that how we deal with babies is important. As per the Ericksons theory of psychosocial development, the trust and mistrust is the first stage of the psychosocial development of a child (Cherry, 2012). As a nurse I will be able to win the trust of the baby. Analysis A child should be able to comprehend that the care giver should address their basic needs. If these needs are not addressed then anxiety may develop out of mistrust, which can have a long term effect on the baby (Cherry, 2012). It is necessary for the care givers to set up a non threatening environment for the child such that a sense of trust develops in the baby regarding the care givers. It can be seen from the transcript that the nurses cuddled the baby and entertained her with toys. The transcript provides with the idea that the nurses took extreme care while prescribing the doses of medicines for the baby, as choice of a wrong doses can bring about adverse effects in the child (Hockenberry Wilson, 2014). Values Throughout the treatment regimen of violet, the nurses were involved enthusiastically starting form blood tests to everything. As a nurse I could provide a holistic care of treatment to the child (Hockenberry Wilson, 2014). Before starting the treatment we need to collect blood from the baby. As a nurse I could understand that it is necessary to distract the attention of the baby. It becomes very difficult for a mother to see blood being extracted from her baby, or her baby crying out in pain (Carter, 2013). Therefore as a nurse I suggested that it is better to feed the baby at the time of extracting blood from the child, so that most of the babys attention goes in having the food. Conclusions drawn The reflective writing gives an idea about how nurse should provide holistic care to a baby. The paper focuses on the fact that a mere cuddling can have a positive impact on a baby and can have a long term development of trust on the care givers (Szcze?niak et al., 2012). Maintenance of e records can have some positive impacts as it helps the heath care professionals and the nurses to evaluate the care that they have provided and helps to prepare the future action plans for the treatment. Action plan Plan- to provide appropriate medication to the baby, pain management while applying medications, to give a holistic care to the baby to ensure the development of trust in the baby . Strategy- Doses should be checked and rechecked with the physician to ensure correct doses. It is necessary to distract the baby while injecting medicines or extracting blood samples. Distraction can be caused by interacting with the baby by interacting with the baby or enhancing the mother to feed her baby (Hockenberry Wilson, 2014). Conclusion Mastering the art of caring for children is one of the foremost duties of the nurses. The article focuses on the inter-personal relationship between the baby and the nurse which will ultimately help in the development of trust, which help the baby to adjust to the care received. References Carter, B. (2013).Child and infant pain: principles of nursing care and management. Springer. Cherry, K. (2012). Erikson's theory of psychosocial development psychosocial development in infancy and early childhood.The New York Times Company. https://psychology. about. com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/psychosocial. htm [26 May 2012].[Links]. Hockenberry, M. J., Wilson, D. (2014).Wong's Nursing Care of Infants and Children-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. Szcze?niak, M., Colao, M., Rondn, G. (2012). Development of interpersonal trust among children and adolescents.Polish Psychological Bulletin,43(1), 50-58.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Tales Of Marketing Essays - Marketing, Societal Marketing

Tales Of Marketing MARKETING CHAPTER 1 Field Of Marketing INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY -New marketing based on info technology. EX. Royal Bank -Royal spent $15 million on data base technology to serve customers more uniquely. -Increased response rate from 4% to 60%. NATURE AND SCOPE OF MARKETING EXCHANGE AS THE FOCUS -Marketing occurs any time 1 social unit (person or organization) exchanges something of value with another social unit. -Marketing consists of activities designed to generate & facilitate exchanges intended to satisfy human needs or wants Exchange-is one of 3 ways in which a person can satisfy a want. EX. Clothes make, borrow, use some form of coercion to get them or offer something of value to another who will voluntarily exchange -Only last approach they call exchange in the sense that marketing is taking place. Following must exist for marketing exchange to take place. -2 or more social units must be involved & each must have wants to be satisfied. If you are self sufficient there is no need for exchange. -Parties must be involved voluntarily (Although argued monopolies deter this.) -Each party must have something of value to contribute & each must believe that it will benefit -Parties must communicate even if done through 3rd party. Without communication, no trade. Marketers-take initiative in trying to stimulate & facilitate exchanges. -They develop marketing plans & programs & implement them to create exchange that can be repeated over time. Market-on other side of exchange, made up of social units to whom marketing programs are directed & who will play a key role in acceptance or rejection of marketers offer. Markets made of customers Customers-Any person or group with whom an individual or organizational marketer has an existing or potential exchange relationship. People who constitute a market play a number of roles. A. Decision maker, individual or organizational unit that has the authority to commit to an exchange B. Consumer, who actually uses or consumes the product. C. Purchaser, The party who actually carries out the exchange D. Influencers, who affect decisions of others because of their expertise, position, or power. Worth Baseball, new safer ball, but clashes with tradition Needs-viewed in strict physiological sense (food, clothing, shelter) everything else is a want. Product-the objective of the exchange or what is being marketed generically as the product. -It can be a tangible, physical product, a service, an idea, a person, or a place. tangible, physical product-corn flakes a service-accounting advise an idea-advertising slogan person-individual applying for a marketing position A place-provincial gov't trying to attract tourism is an example of marketing a place as the product. THE CONCEPT OF RELATIONSHIP IN EXCHANGE Relationship-can develop when 2 people or organizations are voluntarily involved in an exchange situation, are communicating with each other, & are contributing something of value to the exchange & thereby mutually satisfy needs or wants. -relationships are of more long-term nature & involve many exchanges & interactions over a # of years. -longer relationship lasts, more likely it will be of special value to those taking part in it. Better you understand each other, the better the needs are satisfied. APPLICATIONS OF MARKETING Books definition of marketing: Marketing is a total system of business activity designed to plan, price, promote & distribute want-satisfying products, services, & ideas to target markets in order to achieve the objectives of both the consumer & the organization. Marketing is A total system designed to: for business activities plan, price, promote & distribute Something of value: want-satisfying products, services, & ideas in the context of a valuable relationship. For the benefit of: the target mkt. - Present & potential household consumers or business users. To achieve the: satisfaction of the needs & objectives of both the consumers & the firm Definition has implications when marketing is properly applied: -It's a systems definition, meaning it should be understood & applied by all in firm. -Entire system of business or organizational activities must be customer orientated & focus on quality of the customer relationship- customers needs & wants must be recognized & satisfied effectively. -Marketing program starts with an idea for a product or service & doesn't end until the customer's are completely satisfied, which may be some time after the exchange. wants-Marketing program, generally termed the marketing mix, usually consists of 4 coordinated elements: A. a product or service assortment B. a pricing structure C. distributions systems & channels D. promotional activities -Marketing mix doesn't guarantee customer satisfaction. EVOLUTION OF MARKETING -Foundations in Canada were laid by French & English settlers in pioneer times -Developed marketing relationships also with various Native groups. -Since then marketing has evolved

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Educational Philosophy

Educational Philosophy An educational philosophy is a personal statement of a teachers guiding principles about big picture education-related issues, such as how student learning and potential are most effectively maximized, as well as the role of educators in the classroom, school, community, and society Each teacher comes to the classroom with a unique set of principles and ideals that affects student performance. A statement of educational philosophy sums up these tenets for self-reflection, professional growth, and sometimes sharing with the larger school community. An example of the opening statement for an educational philosophy is, I believe that a teacher should have the highest of expectations for each of her students. This maximizes the positive benefits that come naturally with any self-fulfilling prophecy. With dedication, perseverance, and hard work, her students will rise to the occasion. Designing Your Educational Philosophy Statement Writing an educational philosophy statement is often part of degree courses for teachers. Once you write one, it can be used to guide your answers in job interviews, included in your teaching portfolio, and distributed to your students and their parents. You can modify it over the course of your teaching career. It begins with an introductory paragraph summarizing the teachers point of view on education and the teaching style you will use. It can be a vision of your perfect classroom. The statement usually contains two or more paragraphs and a conclusion. The second paragraph can discuss your teaching style and how you will motivate your students to learn. The third paragraph can explain how you plan to assess your students and encourage their progress. The last paragraph summarizes the statement again. Educational Philosophy Examples As with your students, you may be able to learn best by seeing samples that can help inspire you. You can modify these examples, using their structure but rewording them to reflect your own viewpoint, teaching style, and ideal classroom. Teaching Philosophy Statement Examples: These four examples of the first paragraph of an educational philosophy statement can help you when you are developing your own.Educational Philosophy Sample: This full sample shows the structure of four paragraphs for an educational philosophy statement. Using Your Educational Philosophy Statement An educational philosophy statement is not just a one-and-done exercise. You can use it at many points in your teaching career and you should revisit it annually to review and refresh it. Your Teacher Application and Interview: When you apply for a teaching job, you can expect that one of the questions will be about your teaching philosophy. Review your educational philosophy statement and be prepared to discuss it at the interview or provide it in your job application.Preparing for the New School Year or a Classroom Change: How has your experience in the classroom changed your educational philosophy? Before the start of each year, or when changing classrooms, set aside time to reflect on your philosophy statement. Update it and add it to your portfolio.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Art from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance

The transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance reflects a time of great change in the way of life at the time. During the Middle Ages life was in constant turmoil and bleak. After the Fall of the fall of the Roman Empire Europe suffered a multitude of tragedies, such as the black plague, Viking attacks and looting, and barbarian invasions. Throughout these hardships, the glimmer of hope that people clung to was the church. As dark times began to fade the people found a new hope â€Å"homo Faber est quisque fortunate Suae† This phrase is saying that each man is the creator of his own future. This is a juxtaposition to the common ideal in the Roman Catholic religion â€Å"God the Creator† and also exhibits the change in ideology between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. During the Middle Ages, there was a surplus in the faith of the Roman Catholic, this was in part because the primary unifying factor between the people happened to be religion. This allowed the Church to take more of an authoritative rule over society. Church officials kept records and acted as advisors to the monarchs. They were also the largest owners of land and even collected taxes, which greater added to their power and overall influence. There was also less of an emphasis on education during this era, and as a result, it leads to a majority of the population being illiterate. Surprisingly the illiteracy of the population, lead way for art to take a rather important role within society. Where there was such a heavy influence on the Church and religion the average person had no way of reading the bible, so paintings and other outlets of art helped get the churches ideas across through another platform. This is largely why the central topic seen within the art at the time revolves around the Roman Catholic Church. Another reason for the ideology seen within the art at the time is the use of art as a propaganda tool. Throughout time and in all societies you can see that art is one of the most useful forces in getting across ideas between all classes. Gothic and Byzantine art were the main inspirations for medieval architecture. The Byzantine influence can be seen in the Hagia Sophia, a cathedral commissioned by Emperor Justinian during the sixth century. This Humongous church was built in the city of Constantinople and became one of the largest cathedrals for years to come. The Cathedral has Large Granite columns, marble pillars, and beautiful religious mosaics, and possibly the most captivating its large dome. Although the original dome was too heavy and inevitably concaved, it was later rebuilt and improved in the late sixth century. One of the best examples of gothic influence on architecture at the time is the Notre Dame. The Notre Dame was built in Paris, France and initiated by the Bishop of Paris Maurice Sully. The Notre Dame is characterized by gorgeous stained glass windows, large flying buttresses (large arched external supports), and two towers one reaching 300 feet tall. The height and grandiose of these buildings were all just a symbol for the Catholic Church. â€Å"The Cathedral is an image of the City of God, the Celestial Jerusalem, an image of Paradise, as the liturgy for the consecration of churches affirms.† â€Å"The House of God must be illuminated by the rays of the sun, resplendent with a charity like Paradise itself because God is Light, the light who gives beauty to everything that exists†. â€Å"The stained-glass windows that separate us from the storms and let the light pour over us are the Doctors.† These are all but a few quotes that characterize the symbolism seen in the architecture at the time. At the end of the 11th Century, there was a campaign organized by the Western European Christians to reclaim the holy land, in particular, Jerusalem, from the Muslims who had conquered it at the time. The Crusades had a lot of positive effects on the western world as communication and supplies were reignited with the Middle East as it lead way for a lot of new technology and ideas in the west. Such as gunpowder, cotton, new spices, silk, and much more. The Crusades also began to use old Roman roadways to travel during the crusades and as trade routes as well. During the time of the Crusades feudalism also fell. The fall of feudalism gave way to more people becoming merchants because of the recent boom in commerce between the west and the Middle East. As the Merchant business boomed it also allowed for new career opportunities for prior serfs and peasants. It created jobs like bookkeepers, money exchangers, managers, and the making system. This newfound class mobility allowed the serfs to lead a better middle-class life as opposed to being at the bottom of the social pyramid within the feudal system. This change and exchange of new ideas and technology due to the crusades and also the Middle Ages as a whole was the catalyst for the renaissance. The Renaissance was a period in European history also known as the â€Å"rebirth† of European culture following the Roman Empire. This â€Å"rebirth† began in Italy of course. It began in Italy most obviously because of their geographic location. Italy being the boot of Europe was surrounded by water, which made it an excellent hub during the expansion of trade. Italy was the commerce capital between Europe and Eurasia, during this time period, from the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries. Painters, sculptors, and architects exhibited a similar sense of adventure and the desire for greater knowledge and new solutions. During the Renaissance, the artist was no longer regarded as mere artisans, as they had been to the medieval past, but for the first time emerged as independent personalities, compared to poets and writers. Many artisans merged mathematics with art, in order to become more precise in their measurements and to make sure an object was supported both rational ly and proportionally. However, Renaissance artists also placed human concerns and feelings at the center of their works. Such optimism combined with intellectual curiosity and increasing worldliness made it possible for art to be valued. Overall, the Renaissance art movement completely discredited the Middle Ages as being dead both intellectually and artistically, thus rendering the Byzantine, Romanesque, and Gothic style art as being without value. The Renaissance came from a revival of the Classical ideas, concepts, and knowledge. What had once been forgotten was once again the focus of society. It was also found that in Classical times artists enjoyed a much higher level of prestige than they did during the Middle Ages. Artists wanted to enjoy this status once again. The Renaissance took place over a long period of time. Maybe this is an indication of its immense popularity both then and now. However, the Italian Renaissance can be divided into three distinct periods known as Ea rly, High, and Late respectively. These stages were preceded by the Gothic art movement, which acted as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, and was followed by Mannerism, which bridged the gap between the Renaissance and the Baroque. Mannerism hardly had an effect on the popular arts of the time and was not fit into the already neatly categorized art periods when historians looked back upon the era. Early Renaissance art took up most of the 15th century and was characterized by inspiration from antiquity. The movement was focused in Florence, Italy because this local had brought attention upon itself through various conflicts within the church and with its neighbors. The art form focused on the human body, space, and the laws of proportion when it came to architecture. The belief was that progress and development were the backbones of the evolution and survival of art. The primary painter of the time was Masaccio. His work was religious in nature and his inspiration came not from other painters but from the sculptor Donatello and the architect Brunelleschi. High Renaissance art was characterized by creating physical presence, drama, and balance than on the behavior and personality that were the focus of Early Renaissance art. The major painters of the time were numerous. There was Leonardo da Vinci, Donato, Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael, and Titian. This period was short-lived, lasting from about 1495-1520 and served as a transitional period between early and late Renaissance. Howe ver, although brief, the art that flowed from this period was exceptional and some of the most famous artists ever produced work during this time. After all, these artists had such a command over their talents that they were able to produce any natural effect they desired and they had an intellect that allowed for balance and harmony along with fine detail, also was created a term for some of them, Renaissance man. The term Renaissance man has come to mean someone with exceptional skills in a wide range of fields. The description applies to many people during the Renaissance, but there are two outstanding candidates for the title. They are Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. The older man, Leonardo, is exceptional in that he excels in two entirely different disciplines, experimental science, and the visual arts. But on the artistic side alone, Michelangelo must be the man. He creates works, all of the highest quality, in the four distinct fields of sculpture, painting, architecture, and poetry. The late Renaissance began with the sack of Rome in 1527. Artists had to scramble to relocate throughout Italy, France, and Spain. This period led to what is now called Mannerism. Mannerism artists turned to produce paintings of people, often nudes, that were portrayed in strange poses and looking somewhat grotesque while odd themes were used and emotion looked horrifying. Michelangelo was the only painter from the High Renaissance to make into the late period. The growing emphasis on individualism during the Renaissance began a change of status for composers of music in society. Unlike their medieval predecessors, Renaissance composers were recognized more often during their lifetimes. The technology of printing permitted a much wider distribution of their works and enabled a larger public into the study of music. Even when spiritual music was still in a dominant position, secular music was becoming more common and its forms more cultivated than in the previous era. The repertoire of instrumental music became more varied, along with the i nvention of new instruments and many of the instruments of the period were improved. Humanism is considered to be the most significant intellectual movement of the Renaissance. As its name implies, humanism was a philosophy that was characterized by blending concern with the history and actions of all human beings, and their influences on the world with religious duty. Prior to Renaissance thinking, Medieval Europe considered life to be sinful that people should only be concerned about their duty to God and the afterlife. The humanists thought that every person has respect and worth and therefore should command the respect of every other person. The humanistic movement began during the early Italian Renaissance with the rediscovery of the writings of classical Greeks and Romans, which were not only models of literary style, but considered to be guided to the understanding of life. The Renaissance movement ushered in the use of oil paints. This was a boon to artists as, due to the sl ow drying time of oil paints, they could edit their paintings, making adjustments over a period of months. They could now focus more on the quality of light on their paintings and were also more in tune with the architectural accuracy of the buildings in the background of their work. Themes centered on Greek and Roman mythology as well as Biblical characters and the Madonna was a pre-eminent figure. When it came to depictions of the human body, the emphasis was often put on the nude form and the perfection of the body. Another important result of the Renaissance was that painters began to communicate more with poets, essayists, philosophers, and scientists. The boundaries between these disciplines began to blur and they began to share ideas with one another and recognized one another for the visionaries they truly were. What caused this rebirth of the visual arts is still unclear; the fourteenth century in Europe witnessed several catastrophic harvests, the Black Death (1346), and a continuing war between England and France. Hardly ideal conditions for an eruption of creativity let alone a sustained birth of paintings, drawings, sculptures and new buildings. Moreover, the Church, the biggest patron of the arts, was racked with disagreements about spiritual and secular issues. Prosperity was also coming to Northern Europe, as evidenced by the establishment in Germany of the Hanseatic League of cities. This increasing wealth provided the financial support for a growing number of commissions of large public and private art projects, while the trade routes upon which it was based greatly assisted the spread of ideas and thus contributed to the growth of the movement across the Continent. Allied to this spread of ideas, which incidentally speeded up significantly with the invention of printing, there was an undoubted sense of impatience at the slow progress of change. After a thousand years of cultural and intellectual starvation, Europe and especially Italy, was anxious for a re-birth. Overall, the Renaissance produced some of the most well-known art ever created in human history. It was a time of revival, of going back to something from the past that worked and bringing that past into new light. After more than five hundred years we still marvel at the works of artists such as Da Vinci and Michelangelo. Humanism downplayed religious and secular dogma and instead attached the greatest importance to the dignity and worth of the individual. This period was unique in its portrayal of the human body and in its enmeshment of art and science. It was proof that the old and the new can come together in harmony.